On Sunday last I taught a lovely couple at my home the basics of fish preparation and cookery. We had a variety of fish to work with including sea bream, skate, clams, lobster, crab and the star of the show, arctic char. This most northerly fresh water fish is found in deep, cold glacial lakes and is a close cousin of salmon and lake trout. The fish we had were from farmed stock in Scotland.
Once filleted we had plenty of fish to steam, poach and cure as gravadlax – or gravlax, both are correct. Literally ‘buried’ salmon, this Scandinavian method of preserving fish initially involved a light salting before burying in the sand above the high-water mark to lightly ferment.
Being rather short of sand, and tidal waters for that matter, in Rutland, we settled instead for the ‘johnny come lately’ method of curing in salt, sugar, cracked pepper and dill. Now this was a dish I used to make on a regular basis when a young head chef in London and it used to fly out the door. It’s a great ‘little earner’ too because once a side of salmon has been cured it aspires to the status of smoked salmon – which customers expect to pay a premium for.
In all that time, never once did I use a recipe – judging by eye how much salt, sugar, dill and pepper to use. I realised (before we started cooking, obviously!) that this approach would probably not inspire confidence in my clients ability to replicate the dish again after making it with me; which would defeat the whole point of making it with them in the first place. So I researched a recipe which was remarkably similar to how I remember making it 25 years ago. Turned out I’d been using a recipe all along, who would have guessed!
1 side of salmon (about 1kg) – skin on and bone free!
1 tbsp peppercorns (black or white, depending on preference)
70g caster sugar
50g coarse sea salt
If you are at all nervous, just cut the recipe in half and make a smaller quantity first time.
The easiest way is to put the peppercorns, salt and sugar in a pestle and mortar or a coffee /spice grinder and give a little whizz / pound. Don’t grind to a powder, about the size of coffee granules is fine. Chop the dill coarsely and mix with the dry ingredients. Coat the salmon from head to toe (flesh side, not skin!) and place into a food bag or wrap tightly in cling film. Refrigerate for 24 hours minimum and 48 maximum. Anywhere in between is fine. Excessive curing dries the fish out to much.
Scrape off the gubbins on top (but don’t be too pedantic) and slice as thinly as you can – like smoked salmon; well as smoked salmon should be, not how the pre-packed stuff often is now which is too thick.
You will have a little bounty of salty sweet fishy juices remaining which you must turn into a mustard sauce to accompany. Take a large fresh egg yolk and mix with a generous tablespoon of this elixir, a good dollop of wholegrain mustard and slowly drizzle rapeseed or sunflower oil whilst whisking furiously to emulsify the mixture. In effect you will end up with a mayonnaise. Taste and add more fishy juices and mustard if you wish. The gravadlax is delicious piled on thinly sliced spelt soda bread – there is a recipe several blogs back.
I had a lovely thank you email from my clients ‘the hands on teaching was perfect along with your very calm, clear and simple explanations meant we will remember most of what you showed us’ which I think is a complement apart from the bits they’ve forgotten
I couldn’t decide which photo to use and I didn’t have much fish left having eaten most of it before thinking it would make a good post. One was natural light only on a gloomy day and the other used a Bowens daylight balanced beauty dish – neither are great, but I was hungry and didn’t want to spend all day on it!
Other news this week – I have a double page spread coming up in the May edition of the Shooting Gazette!
OK, I admit it. This post is not remotely concerned with food. Obviously diet is extremely important when you teach and practice yoga (as it is generally of course!) but this post is purely portrait photography without even my usual tenuous link to food. I have a feeling this post and the last one may well set a trend for 2015 with occasional forays back to simple food recipes. Let’s face it – there’s no shortage of really good food blogs out there and I like to think I’m developing all the time as a photographer and am not restricted purely to food because that’s how I laid out my stall three years ago. Three years this month actually. So a very big hello to Michelle – if she’s still reading this rambling discourse – hang in there Michelle, you were my first ‘follower’ and new ones are rarer than hens teeth!
For the portrait shots I cropped closely around the head to avoid too much variety in background, paying close attention to capturing catch-lights whilst achieving a ‘buoyant but neutral’ head-shot with a ‘natural rather than artificially posed look’.
However,I did still want to see individual character and my directions to my subjects were to ‘look relaxed and not think about the camera – just gaze into the distance and look how you are feeling’. Probably not the best direction in the world and this worked better with some more than others. A few of the images are a little more serious than I would have liked, but I assume that’s how they were feeling. There is quite some variety in eyes and mouth and as David Bate points out:
“An expression can have a dramatic impact, even with the slightest movement of the eyes or mouth. The mouth is read as smiling, sad, angry, gaping, pout etc. Eyes can seem ‘alive’, ‘glaring’, ‘seductive’ etc”. (Bate 2009, p.74).
All of my subjects had a clear idea of how they wanted to look in their photograph, some were naturally more relaxed and this shows clearly in their image. Given that these are all yoga teachers I wanted to capture a ‘peaceful and serene’ feel within each image. Yoga is a way of life for these teachers and I wanted them to look how I imagined they saw themselves in this role; helping people to restore / maintain calm and balance in their lives.
I guess you can tell I didn’t know what to title this post, maybe I should have written it first! It’s a series of images I took last year late August at Whissendine windmill. My third visit in as many months I knew that I wanted to focus on the windows arranged over six floors. The mill has such a beautiful light that creates this gorgeous sepia tone – the images are as shot, I haven’t added filters during processing. When the millstones are still the mill is very quite and peaceful, cobwebs heavy with fine flour curtain each window and the millers tools and implements find convenient resting places on the stone sills. I wanted to try and capture not just how the mill looks, but how it makes me feel. I wonder if I’ve managed to communicate this feeling or not? As part of my Open College of the Arts course I’m researching and studying many photographers and it’s made me learn to appreciate narrative within series of photographs. Although the composition is towards the windows the exposure is for the mill, the windows become pure white light illuminating the interior, so is it about the windows, the mill or the light?
I’d like to think that this series of images ties in with my other blog here, rather more than Taste and Light – but it’s still food related, sort of?
I used a tripod this time to compose carefully rather than increasing ISO to negate camera shake. Although modern DSLR’s are supposed to handle ISO very well I find that anything above 1600 introduces unacceptable noise. This can be rectified afterwards but at the cost of softening the image. So fixing one problem creates another. Lens was Tamron 24-70 f2.8, there is no option to change lenses once working – there is far too much flour in the air. All the photographs were taken within a three hour period, the light was different in each window as I worked my way around this circular building.
At this time of year daylight makes a grudging appearance, clinging to the night like a shy child clinging to its mothers skirts. January is not the best month for me – I really feel the lack of daylight and on a gray day no sooner has the feeble light plucked up enough courage to dimly illuminate my day than the darkness asserts its authority again. It’s not great for photography either. I know we do have some crisp sunny days but they are still short! Which makes it all the harder to get out of bed in the morning – especially Sunday! What this time of year is good for though, at the weekend, is leisurely brunches!
These scotch pancakes are quick and easy to make, virtually gluten free – replace the spelt flour with more gluten free flour and they would be completely gluten free. I like to add some spelt though as it adds a nice nutty flavour with a bit more texture; gluten free flour is very fine. The spelt flour from Whissendine windmill is not too finely milled and is all the better for it – it tastes wonderful and I’m grateful to the miller, Nigel Moon, for keeping this traditional craft alive. I like to buy my flour from him at the windmill and he always has time for a chat too!
Dry cured smoked streaky bacon is delicious with these pancakes, the whole lot drizzled in maple syrup, golden syrup or honey. I quite like butter on mine as well…Children generally like making pancakes too and because they are quite thick they find them easier to make than the thin variety – although without the fun of trying to toss them as high as the ceiling!
This recipe makes about 10 pancakes – enough for two to three servings. Do check the use by date on your baking powder. It’s the sort of ingredient that hangs about at the back of the cupboard past its best! It looses its active properties very quickly as its use by date approaches – throw it away and buy fresh. These pancakes should be light and fluffy, not flat.
- 75g gluten free flour
- 25g wholemeal spelt flour
- pinch of salt
- 6g light brown sugar
- 10g baking powder
- 1g ground cinnamon
- 1 small egg
- 120g milk
- mix all the dry ingredients thoroughly
- add the egg and milk and whisk to a smooth batter
- add small ladle-fulls to a hot non-stick pan and cook for about 30 seconds on each side.
- keep them warm in a clean tea towel as you cook them
I thought I’d share something a little more personal in this post, a photographic essay as part of my Open College of the Arts degree course. It is a personal response to the work of Henri Cartier-Bresson, but also reflects my love not only of food, but where it comes from. It should never just be about a pretty plate of food – this is where it starts. I hope you enjoy it.
These images were taken during a pheasant shoot at Morkery Woods, in Lincolnshire. Each year approximately seventeen hundred pheasant chicks are released into the wood by a game shoot consortium. Hunters or ‘guns’ then pay a membership fee plus day rate to hunt the birds and shoot them. The guns alternate between ‘beating’ – driving the birds towards the guns and putting them to flight and shooting. A handful of professional beaters assist and many of the guns have gun dogs – retrievers and spaniels. The dogs work tirelessly all day and clearly love their role in this sport. The shot birds are divided between the guns afterwards. If there is an excess they typically end up at the ‘fur and feather’ market in Melton Mowbray.
These images are from the second shoot I’ve attended this year. The first time I used a Tamron 24-70mm f2.8 lens and although captured some pleasing images couldn’t always get as close as I wanted – it’s important not to distract the guns at a critical moment. This time I used a Nikon 70-200mm f4 lens and took my tripod as well for extra stability. Camera body was a Nikon D800. The benefit of this is that with 36mp if I need to crop heavily afterwards I still have an acceptably large file to work with. With this type of photography it is rarely possible to fill the frame with the shot. Things happen quickly and it is impossible to guarantee being in the right place at the right time. All images are captured in RAW and processed in Lightroom 5 afterwards. Images are saved in sRGB at a resolution of 300ppi. I converted these images to black and white in Silver Efex Pro because I feel that there is so much more drama with this type of subject in black and white. The snowy weather provided good contrast too.
My objective for the day was to capture the ‘decisive moment’ when the gun fires, the bird is shot, the dog retrieves, the cartridges ejected and the gun re-loaded.
The first image shows a dog about to retrieve. It shows enthusiasm and motion frozen in time from one ear up and the other down, to the flecks of snow kicked up by the running animal. David Bate explains:
“Henri Cartier-Bresson’s famous idea of the ‘decisive moment’ fuses a notion of instantaneity in photography (the freezing of an instant) with an older concept from art history: story-telling with a single picture”.
Bate, D. (2009, p56) Photography: the key concepts. Bloomsbury Academic.
To appreciate this concept within this particular image the viewer must have prior knowledge and then the story unfolds, why the dog is there, what it is about to do and what comes next.
The second image shows a dog carrying a pheasant back to its owner. The beaters are emerging from the wood behind at the end of this particular shoot. The guns and beaters (roles reversed this time) will regroup elsewhere in the wood and start again. The fact that the beaters are so close to the retrieving dog tells the viewer that this is the decisive moment of this shoot – the end of this stage. This is in effect reportage photography although Bate tells us that reportage is:
“an ambiguous concept ranging from the reporting of an event as news to the description of social processes and their impact on people, whether as individuals or as a whole social group”.
Bate, D. (2009, p56) Photography: the key concepts. Bloomsbury Academic.
These series of images both report on this event and also provide a social commentary – that of rural sport and the people who participate in it. Another observation could be made – that of social background, shooting covers a wide social demographic, but that is outside the scope of this brief.
The third image is perhaps the epitome of the decisive moment, shotgun cartridges being ejected from the barrels, their movement along with smoke from the gun barrels frozen in time.
The forth image is perhaps reportage more than the decisive moment but serves to link the series, a brief pause as a gun inspects his kill before we return to the decisive moment in image five. A pheasant shot from a high angle is just about to hit the ground, wings swept back. It could just be landing but the gun and the spaniel moving towards it tell a different story. Image six confirms this as the spaniel makes an easy retrieve, literally at his masters feet.
Images seven and eight show the process repeating itself although each image can be read on its own. The cartridges being loaded:
“indicating a future event caused by the past whose outcome is anticipated by what we see in the picture”.
Bate, D. (2009, p58) Photography: the key concepts. Bloomsbury Academic.
The same holds true for the final image as well. Henri Cartier-Bresson believed the concept of the decisive moment as:
“one unique picture whose composition possesses such vigour and richness, and whose content so radiates outward from it, that this single picture is a story in itself”.
Bate, D. (2009, p57) Photography: the key concepts. Bloomsbury Academic. (Cited in Henri Cartier-Bresson, Images à la sauvette  (‘The Decisive Image’); extracts are reprinted in David Campany, ed.,The Cinematic Image (London: Whitechapel/MIT Press, 2007), p43.
So Cartier-Bresson believed that a single image should be sufficient. The brief requires a series of six to eight photographic prints and although the aim is not to tell a story, it is expected that there will be a linking theme – ‘whether it’s a location, an event or a particular period of time’. Looking carefully at these images with the knowledge that the viewer now has each image tells its own story. Sometimes this knowledge is required, other times individual interpretation will suffice. For example Cartier-Bresson’s image of a striding foot does not require prior knowledge, the viewer can decipher for themselves. However in the image of two Indonesians removing a heavy picture of their Dutch colonial governors out of a state building the day before independence, arguably does.
Our final week at New College Stamford and we are cooking again for Christmas – desserts. It’s been a bit of a crush at times but I do hope you all managed to glean some useful tips and tricks with the odd recipe thrown in as well.
Raspberry, Pistachio and Rose Semi-Freddo
This is a great dessert to make a few days ahead and a perfect alternative dessert to Christmas pudding. The rose water gives a delightful perfume and the raspberries and pistachio nuts make this a very pretty dessert. Remember – we’ve talked a lot about variations on pretty much everything we’ve made and this is no exception. Different fruits, flavourings etc. Finally, remember to transfer from the freezer to the fridge about 30-40 minutes before turning out and slicing.
Line a loaf tin or terrine with a double layer of cling film.
200g caster sugar, 90g honey, 5 egg whites, 600ml double cream, 100g chopped pistachio nuts, 2 tablespoons rosewater, 250g raspberries and mint sprigs to serve.
Heat the sugar with 125ml water. Bring to a simmer and add the honey.
Whisk the egg whites to a soft peak, add the hot syrup and whisk until cold.
Whisk the cream until it holds a soft peak and fold into the egg whites with half the raspberries, the pistachio nuts and rosewater.
Freeze. Serve decorated with the remaining raspberries and sprigs of mint.
Orange Crème Caramel
A favourite dessert, I love the silky texture of these traditional baked milk puddings. Larger ones can be made too, rather than individual desserts.
Makes between 4 – 6 ramekins.
2 oranges, 3 whole eggs, 3 egg yolks, 500ml milk, 2 tablespoons orange liquor, 200g sugar, vanilla.
Heat 100g of the sugar with 2 tablespoons of water until a caramel colour is reached. Add 3 more tablespoons of water and divide the caramel between the ramekins.
Heat the milk with 50g sugar and a touch of vanilla pod – don’t boil.
Whisk the eggs with 50g sugar and the zest of the 2 oranges. Add the orange liquor. (Don’t over-whisk, you don’t want to make the eggs frothy).
Add a thin slice of peeled orange to each ramekin, mix the eggs and milk together and strain into the ramekins.
Cook in a bain marie (water-bath) in a pre-heated oven 150°C for 40 minutes. Allow to cool completely before turning out.
Run the blade of a sharp knife around the edge of each ramekin and invert a plate over each. Flip the right way up and with a little shake and jiggle the Crème Caramel should plop out.
For Graham and Sally – that was a lovely Sauvignon Blanc, thank you!
This week is all about vegetables at New College Stamford; three dishes that deliver on taste and looks, yet are easy to prepare in advance and pop in the micro-wave to re-heat before serving. Yes, you did read that right, the micro-wave. Like a lot of chefs I know the main function of a micro-wave in a kitchen is for re-heating mugs of tea that have gone cold through pressures of work. In a busy professional kitchen so much eating and drinking is done on the hoof, it can be hard to stop. My wife complained for ages that I did as much eating standing up as sitting down! Suffice to say the micro-wave can be your friend – especially at Christmas or when entertaining.
The benefit of cooking vegetables at least in the morning, if not the day before, is that time can be taken to ensure everything is cooked and seasoned to perfection, placed into serving dishes, and cling-filmed ready to spend a few minutes in the micro-wave just before you want to serve them. The cling film will balloon and then shrink over the vegetables keeping them snug and warm whilst you re-heat the next ones. Take the cling film off just before serving (beware hot steam) and only the absence of a stove top cluttered with steaming saucepans will give you away. Enjoy your moment of glory as your guests marvel at your calm efficiency and organisation!
Let’s start with red cabbage, it’s seasonal, colourful and cheap. Usually it will be shredded and braised in the oven. I prefer to shred it really finely and then cook it etuvee – as we have with leeks recently – with a little oil, butter and water / red wine. I find this keeps a gorgeous deep red colour that is often leached out when braised for an hour or more in the oven. Vinegar and sugar give a glossy sweet and sour coating that goes so well with red cabbage and the addition of dates and walnuts make this a truly festive accompaniment that goes well with so many dishes – game and beef casseroles in particular, but turkey too.
The third vegetable dish is a panache of vegetables. Panache is French for a flamboyant manner and reckless courage! I quite like this term, I’m not sure about the reckless courage bit, but the radishes and spring onions I think are flamboyant as well as inexpensive. If you struggle with this idea then think of the spring onions as baby leeks at a fraction of the cost and the radishes as baby pink turnips – which is exactly what they taste like when cooked. Vary the vegetables depending on availability and price. Cook them separately to ensure each vegetable is cooked just so and think about colour combinations too. There isn’t a recipe for this dish – select your vegetables according to colour, texture and availability. Cut accordingly so they are all of a similar size. Bring a large pan of water to the boil and cook each variety of vegetable individually. Cook the green vegetables first – ensure the water is boiling rapidly and don’t cook too many vegetables at once. Cook in batches if necessary. Keep slightly under cooked and remove with a slotted spoon or ‘spider‘ to a bowl of icy water to stop them cooking immediately. This will preserve nice, bright greens. Cook root vegetables next – in the same pan – cooked how you like them (take one out and taste). Remove and refresh as before. Cook radishes last (they turn the water pink) and don’t over cook, they lose colour and don’t taste so nice. Drain everything together, season lightly and place in a serving dish. Put a knob of butter on top and cling film. Residual water on the vegetables will help them ‘steam’ in the microwave. Remember, all three vegetable dishes can be re-heated this way.
Blanching the outer leaves of Savoy cabbage and then stuffing them with the shredded heart is very simple and looks so effective. Different ingredients can be added to make them an attractive vegetarian option too; toasted pine nuts and feta cheese for example. Once made these keep very well in the fridge for a couple of days and re-heat in the micro-wave perfectly. If fridge space is a problem, store in tubs and transfer to their serving dishes on the day – they’ll be fine for a few hours and will re-heat quicker at room temperature than cold from the fridge. This applies to all three vegetable dishes.
Created at a restaurant in Stockholm these potatoes can be made with main-crop or new. When entertaining I like to use medium size main-crop and use a round pastry cutter so each potato is the same size – they look great served next to the little stuffed Savoy cabbages. For the last 10 minutes of cooking sprinkle with Parmesan or Grana Padano breadcrumbs mixed with a little smoked paprika. Note: as Sue suggested, a few slivers of garlic would make a great addition popped between the slices, a little lemon zest is good too.
Vegetables for Christmas
- 1 small red cabbage about 450g
- 40g sunflower oil
- 85g water (approximately)
- 60g golden caster sugar
- 60g balsamic vinegar
- 100g pitted dates
- 50g walnut halves
- sea salt and freshly milled pepper
- 1 small savoy cabbage with lots of dark outer leaves - about 600g
- 36g (2 rashers) dry cure smoked streaky bacon
- 25g unsalted butter
- 25g pine nuts
- 6-8 medium size potatoes
- Sunflower oil
- 25g + 25g unsalted butter
- 10g breadcrumbs
- 15g grated Parmesan or Grana Padano cheese
- 1g smoked paprika
- finely shred the cabbage
- heat the oil with a little butter in a pan
- add the cabbage and stir fry over a medium heat until the cabbage starts to wilt
- add the water (or red wine), vinegar, sugar, dates and walnuts
- continue to stir fry until the cabbage is just soft
- the liquid should have reduced to a sweet-sour glaze
- if the liquid evaporates before the cabbage is cooked, add a little more water
- season to taste
- remove 6-8 of the largest outer leaves and cook in a large pan of boiling water
- don't overcook, but they must be more than just blanched
- when cooked remove with a slotted spoon (keep the water) and refresh in icy water. drain
- finely shred the heart and cook in the same pan of water until just soft
- drain in a colander and spread the cabbage on a tray to cool down
- finely slice the bacon and fry gently in the butter until crisp and golden, add the pine nuts
- add the bacon mixed to the shredded cabbage, season to taste and mix well
- take one of the outer leaves and cut out the thick part of the mid-rib, but don't cut the leaf in half!
- place the leaf outside surface facing down, onto a clean tea towel
- place a generous tablespoon of the shredded cabbage mix on top and fold over the outer leaf
- gather the tea towel around the leaf and gently 'wring' into a ball
- carefully unfold the towel and repeat with the next leaf
- pre-heat the oven to 180°C
- peel the potatoes and stamp out large rounds with a pastry cutter (or leave as they are for larger Hasselbacks). New potatoes don't need peeling
- cut a slice off the bottom of each potato and place two wooden chopsticks on either side
- cut thin slices down to these which will leave about 5mm of potato holding the slices together.
- place on a well oiled baking tray
- brush the potatoes with 25g melted butter and season
- cook for about 30 minutes by which time they should be nearly cooked (check by inserting a skewer) and golden
- melt the 2nd 25g butter in a pan and add the breadcrumbs, paprika and cheese
- scatter over the potatoes and return to the oven for a further 15 minutes until golden and crispy
- serve immediately
- although the potatoes need to be cooked and served immediately, they can be peeled and cut the day before - just keep them in cold water
- the breadcrumb mix can be made the day before too
It’s incredible how quickly the weeks go by on these courses at New College Stamford! In actual fact two hours a week over five weeks is really just a one day course – so all things considered I think we manage to pack quite a lot in. Not turkey though which is just too big to enable everyone to have a go. In fact 19 whole chickens would be quite a lot too, but I hope you all enjoyed the butchery demonstration on the chicken and remember – removing the wishbone first makes carving a lot easier and you’ll get a slice of stuffing and breast meat all in one go. What you won’t get of course is the wishbone to make a wish with – a small price to pay for the added convenience!
We are going to start with quite a simple chicken dish that uses a couple of neat little techniques that I hope the group will find interesting, easy and time saving – which I hope sums up the course! Guinea fowl, pheasant or pork fillet could be easily substituted for the chicken and the real benefit of this dish is that it can be prepared and have its first cook the day before. The leeks for the filling are cooked étuvée which we discussed last week. This technique is ideal for leeks, carrots, swede, fennel etc, preserving maximum flavour and colour. However it doesn’t really work for green beans and leafy vegetables which generally cook more evenly and with greater retention of colour in plenty of boiling water.
The second dish was a simple baked salmon with a sun-dried tomato and parsley crust served with a roasted red pepper dressing. Place a skinned side of salmon on an oiled baking tray and season with sea salt and freshly milled black pepper. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 200°C for 15 minutes. Remove from the oven and check the temperature in the middle of the thickest bit. I should be about 40°C. Cover with the breadcrumb crust and return to the oven for a further 6 minutes to brown the crust. Check the temperature again – 65-70°C is what you are aiming for. Bacteria stop growing at this temperature and above this temperature start to die. Serve warm or cold, remember to allow food from the fridge to reach room temperature before serving. Food should not be held at room temperature for more than two hours and should be discarded after this time and not returned to the fridge.
The dressing was red peppers roasted in a hot oven until the skin blackens. Allow to cool and remove the skin and seeds. Liquidize with olive oil and balsamic vinegar (some roast garlic is good too) until you have a nice dressing consistency. Season to taste.
That’s it – remember peelers and chopsticks next week.
Last night was another more than full house at New College Stamford – 19 learners, a record! However, thanks to the help of Nicola and the use of a second kitchen we managed ok I think. Feel free to leave a comment, what you liked / didn’t like and click the ‘like’ button too if you wish – that way I know someone’s reading this! Thanks also to Tracey for signing people in this week and of course Joan who did the same last week – I appreciate it. So, week two Cooking for Christmas – starters.
We prepared three simple but effective starters that I hope you enjoyed and will make again. Let’s start with the soup, and remember these recipes are guidelines – have a bit of fun and play around with different flavour / ingredient combinations to your own taste. The soup was Roast Tomato with Sweet Potato and Thyme. Grab a large baking sheet or roasting tray, lightly grease with olive oil and add halved tomatoes, small sweet potatoes in their skins, whole shallots or small onions – once again in their skins and half a head of garlic. Scatter with sea salt and drizzle with more olive oil. The picture above is a roast onion squash soup I made the other week – same principal.
Roast until the potatoes a soft when a skewer is inserted and the tomatoes have that nice golden around the edges roasted look. Scrap the flesh from the sweet potato, shallots and garlic. Liquidise with the tomatoes, roasted thyme leaves (not stalks) and add water to thin to the required consistancy. Pass through a strainer and season to taste. Serve hot or chilled with Crème fraîche , or pesto, or a drizzle of good olive oil, scatter with fresh herbs…you get the idea.
Next we made a warm chicken salad with an orange and walnut slaw (white cabbage shaved on a mandolin, spring onions, parsley, orange segments and walnuts / pecans). We made two honey and mustard dressings and hopefully you now know how easy it is to make fresh mayonnaise (egg yolk, mustard, vinegar / citrus, oil, season). We added honey afterwards and thinned with water to make a light dressing. Remember the theory – the lecithin in the egg yolk provides stability and aids emulsion. The flour in mustard helps too. Add the oil slowly, whisking quickly…Think about variations – different mustards, vinegars, citrus, herbs, roast garlic, different oils etc. Always consider the complimentary characteristic of your ingredients. Use a light hand and add more ingredients / seasoning to taste – you can always add more, but you can’t take it out!
The smoked mackerel rillette recipe is below. It goes very well with a shaved fennel and celery salad with a few capers and lightly dressed with fresh lemon and exra virgin olive oil.
Smoked Mackerel Rillettes
- smoked mackerel fillets, skin and bones removed
- spring onions, finely sliced
- chopped flat leaf parsley
- hot horseradish sauce
- lemon zest and juice
- Crème fraîche or sour cream
- combine all the ingredients together, folding in rather than beating which will create a paste
- season to taste
- this will keep for two or three days in the fridge but is best made as fresh as possible
An interesting first night with rather more learners than usual! Thank you all for your patience and I hope you took something away that will help you with your entertaining.
The French started offering canapés to their guests at the end of the 18th Century and the English adopted the practice about a hundred years later. The word canapé translates roughly as ‘couch’ and refers to the way a small piece of food was draped over a small piece of stale bread – much as a person would lounge on a couch.
A canapé is designed to be eaten in one bite and traditionally are highly decorative – and salty, to encourage guests to drink; fine if you have a horse and carriage waiting to take you home! Today a canapé is an ideal way to greet guests as soon as they arrive and should be designed to complement the drinks that are being served as well as complementing each other.
Generally speaking, assuming they are preceding a meal, varieties should be limited to three or four – six at the most. They should also offer a balance of meat, fish and vegetarian and be prepared with a light and healthy touch whilst being visually appealing. The traditional savoury butters spread on stale white bread are probably not the best way to go any more!
Literally ‘mouth amuser’, similar to a canapé but may be slightly larger and served on a plate with cutlery. An example would be a little ‘cappuccino’ soup served in an espresso cup. Amuse-bouche are served at the Chef’s discretion, free of charge, as a little appetiser.
One of the canapés we will be making tonight at Stamford College is kiwi fruit on rye bread. The photograph above serves as a recipe; it is what you see! Use a small pastry cutter to stamp rounds of black rye bread and butter lightly – this serves to ‘waterproof’ the bread. Peel and slice a kiwi fruit and using the same size cutter place on top of the bread. Using two teaspoons shape a little quenelle of cream cheese, place on top of the kiwi fruit and finish with a little ‘tongue’ of tomato and a sprig of dill. This canapé is fresh, light, colourful and vegetarian; it is important to have a balance of meat, fish and vegetarian to cater for all tastes. Four to five pieces per person one bite size, should be plenty; assuming they are preceding a meal. They should stimulate your guests appetite, not fill them up!
The other four canapés we will make are little savoury muffins, chicken teriyaki, salmon tartare and little filo pastry nests with creamed leeks . The muffins freeze well and can be made well in advance – do serve warm though, not cold. The chicken can be marinated a couple of days in advance and grilled at the last moment – serve warm if possible. The salmon needs to be prepared within an hour of being served.
The chicken marinade for the chicken teriyaki was garlic, ginger, honey, saki and soy sauce. Although we only marinated these for 20 minutes, this can be done several hours in advance. Drain, pan fry and when golden pour over the marinade, reducing to a glossy glaze. Alternatively, grill, reduce the marinade in a pan and brush the glaze over the chicken.
Little filo nests were a strip of filo brushed with melted butter and ‘scrunched’ into a little nest. Baked for 10 minutes until crisp and golden with some blue cheese. Leeks (green only) were finely shredded and cooked ‘etuvee’ – in a little water and butter and cooked until just dry. Add a little crème fraîche and season. Mound on top of the filo nests and decorate with a little red pepper triangle.
For the salmon tartare finely dice very fresh salmon. Squeeze over fresh lemon juice and leave to ‘cure’ – not longer than 2 hours. Drain and gently fold in a little crème fraîche, some chopped chives and season. Mound onto little toasts – we baked this crisp in the oven first and then lightly buttered them to create a ‘waterproof’ barrier between the salmon and toast.
The muffin recipe is below.
Remember also the alternative ingredient combinations we discussed – the recipes above are guides only!
- Savoury Muffins - makes 30 small muffins
- 50g streaky bacon cut into fine strips
- 50g unsalted butter
- 25g button mushrooms, chopped
- 150g self raising flour
- 1 tbsp fresh chopped herbs - chives, parsley etc
- 25g skinned, chopped tomato
- 50g Gruyère, grated
- 1 egg, beaten
- 100g milk
- salt and freshly ground pepper
- Savoury Muffins
- blanch the bacon in boiling water, drain thoroughly and fry in 5g of the butter until crisp
- add the diced mushrooms and fry with the bacon until the mushrooms are golden
- sift the flour into a bowl and rub in the remaining butter
- add the bacon/mushroom mixture, the herbs, tomato and cheese
- combine the egg with the milk and season
- stir into the flour mixture until evenly combined
- fill greased miniature muffin tins and fill ¾ full
- bake in a pre-heated oven 220°C for 10 minutes until risen and golden
- the bacon can be left out of the muffins to make them vegetarian
- generally speaking, different herbs, cheese, citrus, spices can be substituted with all three recipes - play around!